Updates

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Great news, teachers of Spanish 2! Everyone that has been using my curriculum and wondering when I was going to add slideshows like I have in my Spanish 1 units….that day has arrived! I just added a slideshow for my -AR preterite regular verbs unit, La muchacha y la ardilla, and I’ll be adding slideshows for the remaining units as time allows (don’t hold your breath…but they’ll be coming!). You can view my Spanish 1 and Spanish 2 curriculum maps here.

Some other units that have received major overhauls over the last few months are…

If you want to learn more about how I embed culture into my unit plans by using the unit’s target structures to explore a specific cultural topic, please contact me at martinaebex@gmail.com to schedule a workshop!

Freeze Frame

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If you’ve been to a TPRS® training in the last five years (or more), it’s likely that you are familiar with the “Freeze Frame” activity. I know that Carol Gaab often lists it as an activity to use when reading novels from TPRS Publishing, and many of my favorite bloggers have shared their versions of the activity over the past few years (read Freeze Frame descriptions from Bryan Kandel, Crystal Barragán, Dustin Williamson, Cynthia Hitz, and Michele Whaley). Freeze Frame is a fun, interactive way to review a story by assigning to students to groups that create physical depictions of scenes from a story (short film, class story, novel, etc.) in ‘freeze frame’ vignettes.

CC 2006 Katherine Flickr.com

CC 2006 Katherine Flickr.com

INSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Select 8-10 scenes from a story or text that would be interesting to depict in a “freeze frame” vignette.
  2. Divide the class into groups. The groups should contain the number of characters needed to depict the scenes plus one additional student. (3 characters in most scenes = 4 students per group).
  3. Read one of the scenes aloud to the class. Give the groups between 30 seconds and one minute to create their vignette depicting that scene. The extra student in the group should play the role of the director, arranging his/her groupmates to form a beautiful frozen moment.
  4. After the scene is set, call time.
  5. Have the director snap a photo of his/her group and send it to you (the teacher) to project and discuss with the class later. If this is not a realistic possibility, then you can un-freeze all but two groups and have the ‘thawed’ students look at the two groups that are still frozen. Compare and contrast the two groups’ depictions of the scene at hand.
  6. Un-freeze all groups, have them choose a new director/photographer, and give them a new scene. Repeat the process for as many scenes as you have prepared.

TWISTS:

  • Have just one group of students depict each of the scenes in front of the class. Show the scene description to that group of students, but keep it a secret from the class. The class must observe the actors and guess which scene is being depicted.
  • Divide the class into two teams. Bring up a set of student actors and a director from each team. Show the scene description to the directors, but do not show it to the actors or the other team members. The director must physically manipulate the actors’ bodies to form the freeze frame vignette. The director can only give physical commands in the target language, like “Move your leg”, “Raise your right arm”, etc. Each actor in the group has one opportunity to guess which scene they are forming (if there are three actors in each group, that team can have three guesses total.) The first team that guesses the scene correctly earns a point. The team members that are not participating in the creation of the vignette can shout out suggestions to the actors as to which scene the actors should guess, but a guess only becomes official when an actor says it. Once a team runs out of guesses or the other team correctly guesses the scene before it, that team cannot earn a point.

PHOTOS:

But what to do with all of the photographed scenes that you’ve collected? Use them to generate more comprehensible input and provide opportunities for output, of course! Here are a few ideas…please add yours in the comments section below!

  • Project them to the class and describe them–circling target structures, checking for comprehension, and personalizing, of course! (See this how-to page if you are unfamiliar with any of those strategies.)
  • Print out a sheet of wallet-sized prints for each student or pairs of students and have students sequence them based on the story, then re-tell the story by writing or speaking descriptions for each one.
  • Play “Pick the pic” (or use it as an assessment).
  • Distribute one of the images to pairs of students, and have them write an alternate story explaining what is going on in the picture (an explanation that is different than what actually happened in the story but still makes sense based on that image alone).
  • Print out copies and give one to each student. Students need to form a human timeline by describing their scene to their classmates–but they can’t ever show the picture until the timeline is complete!
  • Form groups of four students and give each student a different image. Then, have students try to find similarities between the scenes being depicted by playing Team Windows.

MovieTalk and activities: Amazing Acrobat Thief Kid!

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If you follow The Comprehensible Classroom on Facebook, you may have already seen this video. (If not, visit our Facebook page now and “like” us!”) This video is perfect for MovieTalk because the action repeats several times within the video clip. (That’s also what I love about the short film Destiny, which I’ve blogged about before.)

Here is a MovieTalk guide in English along with an outline of three different activities that you could use with it. Two things:

  1. I would have typed up everything in Spanish, too, but my time is so limited these days that I couldn’t do it in both languages, and it’s helpful to more readers if I do it in English. Translate into your target language, and send me a copy if you do so that I can post it (credit to you) for others to use! martinaebex@gmail.com
  2. I wouldn’t recommend doing all of the activities. MovieTalk will establish the meaning for new vocab like “footprints”, so students will be able to handle it in the activities. I’d just pick one activity to do, but all three are here for you if you wish to use them all :)

MOVIETALK GUIDE

To be done in the target language. Unfamiliar with MovieTalk? Click here for an overview.

:00 This is a boy. How old is he? [discuss and come to a consensus] He is white. He has brown hair. He is wearing a red shirt. He has a paint brush and a can of yellow paint. This is a wall. There are footprints on the wall. The footprints are yellow, too.

:02 There is another boy, too. He is also white. He also has brown hair. He is also (10) years old. He is also wearing a red shirt. He is on a ladder.

:04 The two boys are not identical, but they are almost identical. This boy has two shoes. The shoes have yellow paint on them. The two boys made the yellow footprints on the wall with the two shoes. Why? [discuss and come to a consensus]

:05 This is a woman. She is an old woman. Is she a hispanic woman? [discuss and come to a consensus] She has gray, curly hair. She is wearing a blue shirt. She is wearing gray pants. She is wearing a handkerchief on her head. She is wearing a watch. She has a purse. The purse is black. What is she doing? [discuss and come to a consensus] Is there another person? Yes! Here is one of the boys. He is wearing a red shirt. He is wearing shorts. He is wearing white shoes. He is hiding behind a red car. He is looking at the old woman.

:07/:08 The old woman is talking to a man. The man is wearing a suit. The man is wearing glasses. Is the man black? [discuss and come to a consensus] The man is walking. Where is he going? [discuss and come to a consensus]

:11 What does the boy do? [ask for ideas] Yes! He is hiding behind the car. Then, he runs toward the old woman. The old woman doesn’t see the boy. He grabs her purse. The old woman is surprised! The boy runs away with the old woman’s purse.

:13 The woman talks to the man in the suit. What does she say? [discuss and come to a consensus]] The man run towards the old woman. He runs after/chases the boy.

:16 The boy runs. There is a tray of paint on the ground. The paint in the tray is yellow. While the boy runs, he steps in a tray of yellow paint. Now, there is yellow paint on his white shoes. The boy keeps running.

:17 The boy runs around the corner of the building. On this side of the building, there is a garbage can next to the building. The garbage can is green. There is a hole in the garbage can. There are two boxes next to the garbage can. There is a white sheet on the ground in front of the garbage can. There are yellow footprints on the wall of the building. There is another person hiding. The man wearing the suit is on one side of the building, and the boy in the red shirt is on this side of the building. The man wearing the suit does not see the boy. The man wearing the suit does not see the garbage can. The man wearing the suit does not see the sheet. The man wearing the suit does not see the boxes. The boy steps on the white sheet. The boy goes into the hole in the garbage can. He hides in the garbage can.

:19 The boy grabs the boxes. The boy moves the boxes toward the garbage can. Now, we do not see the hole in the garbage can. We do not see the boy. The other person grabs the white sheet. Now, we do not see the white sheet. We only see the yellow footprints on the wall.

:21 This is a woman. Is she an old woman? [discuss and come to a consensus] Is she an Asian woman? [discuss and come to a consensus] She has blonde hair. Is it natural blonde hair? [discuss and come to a consensus] She is wearing a blue shirt. She is wearing a white scarf. She is wearing black pants. She has a purse. Her purse is tan. She is running. She wants to help the old woman. She sees the yellow paint.

:23 She sees the footprints. The footprints are yellow. She sees footprints on the ground. She sees footprints on the garbage can. She is confused. Why is she confused? [discuss and come to a consensus]

:27 She sees more footprints. The footprints are on the wall of the building. She sees many footprints. The footprints are walking toward the roof of the building.

:30 She sees the boy on the roof of the building. It is the boy in the red shirt. He has the old woman’s purse. What does the woman want to know? [discuss and come to a consensus]

:35 There is another man. [describe him] The old woman is talking to him. While sheis talking to him, the boy in the red shirt runs toward her and grabs her purse….

Continue describing each of the ‘victims’ and what happens (over and over and over) and discussing the victims’ reactions. Then…

1:24 The boy moves the two boxes. He comes out of the garbage can. He has the black purse in his hand.

1:26 What does the woman think/feel? [discuss and come to a consensus]

Discuss each of the victims’ responses when the trick is revealed.

SEQUENCING ACTIVITY (post-MovieTalk)

Translate these sentences into the target language, scramble them, and give them to students on a worksheet. Students can work individually or in partners to put them back in order–either by numbering them or cutting them apart and physically re-arranging them. Alternatively, you could divide the class into groups of 15, hand out a strip with one of the events written on it to each the students in the group, and have them physically form a human timeline.

  1. A boy hides behind a red car.
  2. The boy runs toward an old woman.
  3. The boy grabs the old woman’s purse.
  4. The old woman yells, “Help me!”
  5. The boy runs away.
  6. A person runs after/chases the boy.
  7. The boy hides in a trash can.
  8. The person sees footprints on the ground.
  9. The person follows the footprints.
  10. The person sees footprints on the building.
  11. The person sees another boy on the roof of the building.
  12. The person thinks that it is the same boy.
  13. The person is very confused.
  14. The original boy comes out of the trash can.
  15. The person understands that there are two boys.

EMBEDDED READING

Translate into the target language and read in sequence from most simple to most detailed.

Version 1:

A boy steals a purse and runs in the other direction. A person sees the boy and runs to help. The boy disappears. The person sees the boy’s footprints. The footprints are on the wall of a building. The person sees the boy on top of the building. The person is confused.

Version 2:

A boy steals a purse from an old woman. The old woman yells for help, and the boy runs in the other direction. A man helps the old woman. The man sees the boy and runs to help the old woman. The boy hides in a trash can. The man doesn’t see the boy. The man only sees the boy’s footprints. The footprints are yellow. The footprints are on the ground. They are on the trash can. They are on the wall of the building. The man follows the footprints and sees the boy. The boy is not on the ground. The boy is on top of the building! The man is very confused.

Version 3:

There are two boys. They are tricky boys! The boys have a plan. An old woman cooperates with them. She participates in their tricky plan! One boy is hiding behind a car. He grabs a purse from the old woman. The woman yells, “Help me!”. A man sees the boy. He wants to help the old woman! He follows the boy. The boy hides in a trash can. There is a hole in the trash can. The boy goes into the hole in the trash can. The man looks for the boy. He doesn’t see the boy. The man only sees the trash can. He doesn’t see the hole in the trash can. He doesn’t know that the boy is in the trash can. He also sees the boy’s footprints. The footprints are yellow. The footprints are on the ground. They are on the trash can. They are on the wall of the building. The man follows the footprints and sees a boy. The man thinks that it is the same boy. It is not the same boy! It is a different boy. The second boy is not on the ground. He is on top of the building! The man is very confused. He doesn’t know that there are two boys. He doesn’t know that the original boy is in the trash can. He doesn’t know that it is a trick! Finally, the original boy comes out of the trash can. He explains the trick to the man. What tricky boys!!

RUNNING DICTATION

Translate events into the target language and write each one on its own piece of computer paper. Instructions for the activity can be found in this post, and a great extension for the running dictation is explained in this post.

  1. A boy grabs a purse and runs.
  2. A man follows the boy.
  3. The boy disappears.
  4. The man sees footprints.
  5. The man follows the footprints with his eyes.
  6. The footprints are on a wall.
  7. The man sees the boy on top of the building.
  8. The man is very confused.
  9. It’s impossible to run on a vertical wall!

QAR en français!

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French Intro to QARThanks to Samantha Uebel, who sent me French translations for my QAR materials, all of you French teachers out there can rest easy knowing that you can pop into class tomorrow and try out QAR without having to do the grunt work of translating everything for yourselves!! Yippee!

Click here to download the materials in French, Spanish, and English. Thanks, Samantha! U R D Best!

Unfamiliar with QAR? Click here.

 

QAR Strategies for Differentiating Questions

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QAR image

If you attended my workshop on QAR Strategies for Differentiating Questions at iFLT this past summer or its condensed counterpart at AFLA just a few weekends ago, you will be happy to see this post! If you didn’t, I hope that you will be happy to have found it once you’ve read through it.

QAR (Question-Answer Relationships) is a strategy developed by Taffy Rafael to help students respond accurately to reading comprehension questions. (I was introduced to QAR in a reading strategies workshop by Carol Gaab in 2011.) In addition to the originally intended purpose for QAR, there are many intangible benefits to learning and using QAR in the classroom. It is wise for teachers to consider QAR when planning assessments, class activities, and discussions!

I introduce QAR to my students in Unit 12 of Spanish 1; toward the beginning of the second quarter (click here to see my Spanish 1 curriculum map). I begin by having them write questions in the target language based on the class story in that unit (the story is about a kleptomaniac). Then, I work through a Keynote presentation with them that provides them with an overview of each QAR type in English and a sample text and questions in Spanish. The presentation that I use is included in this QAR resource pack (it’s free, of course!). Once they’ve learned the four QAR types, we go back and categorize each of the 10 questions that they wrote about the story and discuss the answers. Finally, I provide them with a new text and ask them to write questions for each of the four QAR types, and then they share and discuss them with the class.

Once students have learned QAR, I use them regularly in my classes so that students keep them at the forefront of their minds! Almost any activity can be adapted to explicitly practice QAR, and here are four that I have used in the past and a brief explanation of how to use them to explicitly practice QAR:

  • Communicative QAR (students must write one question of each QAR type to ask to classmates)
  • Grab and Go (adapted from Jason Fritze; shared with me by Michele Whaley–students must cycle through the QAR types as they write their questions)
  • Jeopardy Q&A (students must develop questions of a specific QAR type that elicit the answer provided)
  • Story Fan N Pick (Have students write questions for each QAR type, then compile their questions to create a set of 12 questions to use in groups)

Again, click here to access the QAR resource pack that I use to introduce QAR to my students.

If you are interested in learning more about QAR and how to use it in the classroom, contact me via email (martinaebex@gmail.com) to schedule a workshop or webinar.

All content © 2011-2014 The Comprehensible Classroom. It is intended for classroom use only. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written consent from Martina Bex is strictly prohibited. It is strictly prohibited to use this content in a presentation without express and written consent from Martina Bex. Please contact her at martinaebex@gmail.com with any questions.

 

Global Competency: Refining Hypotheses

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We had a great Alaskans for Language Acquisition (AFLA) conference last weekend in Seward! The only bummer was that Cynthia Hitz didn’t join us this year :( Michele (the Alaska Language Teacher of the Year!) has already blogged about it, and you can read her post here. I have found it nearly impossible to carve out computer time while we settle into life with three kiddos…but I’ve been THINKING about blogging a lot!!

Our Keynote speakers this year were Bryce Hedstrom and Paul Sandrock. If you have been around the TPRS®/TCI world for awhile, you will definitely recognize Bryce’s name. I have many wonderful things to say about Bryce, but they will wait for another post. Today, I want to write about Paul Sandrock. ‘

If you are active in ACTFL and read their publications, watch their webinars, or attend their conferences, you have probably seen Paul’s name before. A former Spanish teacher, he is now a figurehead for our national organization and serves on the board of directors. What you may not know about Paul is that he is a truly delightful human being! I was impressed on numerous occasions throughout the weekend with his kindness, humility, and adaptability as he suffered through more than a few technical and logistical snafus…and even helped us to survive them with tools from his incredible tech-emergency-preparedness kit! And in a kind and patient manner! What a nice man.

Not only was Paul a nice man, but he is a nice man with a wealth of knowledge! While I was unable to attend all of Paul’s sessions because I was either presenting myself or had a 10-day-old in tow that liked to start crying as soon as I entered the room, the few snippets that I was able to catch were enough to give me a whole list of ideas for activities, lesson plans, and blog posts.

The first of his presentations that I was able to attend was on Global Competency. Paul defined Global Competency as knowing “how, when, and why to say what to whom”. Teaching culture to my students through comprehensible, compelling input is my passion! My takeaway from this session was to challenge myself to find ways to build global competency with each of my cultural units. Instead of settling for learning about a cultural practice, product, or perspective, I want to apply that knowledge and examine what it teaches us about global competency–how that practice, product, or perspective informs how, when, and why we should say what to whom in the target culture. Sandrock explained that as students investigate the world, they must recognize that their own culture influences their perceptions of other cultures’ products, practices, and perspectives. Taking those perceptions into account, they must learn to communicate effectively with people from diverse cultures and possibly take action to understand and act on issues of global importance.

Since that’s a little hard to follow, let me give you a small example–in one of my units, my students learn the target structures lives aloneworks, and needs, and then we use those structures to learn about the Argentinian gaucho. Students read a quick description of the gaucho, in Spanish, and then they learn more about it through several videos, songs, and other activities. At some point, we compare the gaucho to the American cowboy; discussing similarities and differences. However, global competency is not targeted in the unit [yet]. We learn about the gaucho, and we learn about a similar aspect of our culture, but we don’t explore how our understanding of the American cowboy might affect our understanding of the Argentinian gaucho and, even further, how that [mis]understanding might affect our communication with an Argentinian. So…how do we go about that exploration?

This train of thought led me back to my methods class, when I was still a wee baby of a Spanish teacher, and a lesson on hypothesis refinement. Hypothesis refinement is a process that students can use to identify and analyze their perceptions on the products, practices, and perspectives of other cultures, then synthesize those perceptions with new information about the topic at hand to form new, modified perceptions. Since discovering comprehensible input, my appreciation for hypothesis refinement has grown because there the process provides many opportunities for comprehensible input and comprehensible output. While quite a few educators and researchers have written about hypothesis refinement as a way to study culture, I am particularly fond of the work of Crawford-Lange and Lange because of the connection that they made between language learning and cultural learning. Their process for hypothesis refinement consists of seven steps, and I have changed the seventh step slightly and added an additional, eighth step:

Hypothesis refinement

When I wrote my sample hypothesis refinement lesson plan in my methods course, I based it on the penitentes of Semana Santa. It was an obvious sample lesson because of the similarity of their wardrobe with that of the KKK. However, I’ve since realized that a hypothesis refinement lesson need not focus on a misperception; the process can be applied to any cultural product, practice, or perspective, even when its significance seems obvious. Our own culture influences the way that we view everything in a target culture, and it is wise to examine even the most subtle of its influences.

As luck would have it, I stumbled upon a great website to find topics for hypothesis refinement today! OFLA shared a link from Larry Ferlazzo on its Facebook page. The Ferlazzo article shared a really neat website called “Fasten Seat Belts“, in which students can click on a country and read short articles that describe cultural practices in that country that might differ from the cultural norms in their own country of origin. The website even has an app, which would make it perfect for use in BYOD classes! The articles are written in English, but the vocabulary is fairly simple, so students could most likely transfer the information into the target language without much difficulty.

But how to ensure that this process provides comprehensible input and opportunities for comprehensible output? Here are some strategies:

  • Discuss the students’ initial perceptions as a class. This allows the teacher to guide the discussion. The teacher can use circumlocutions, provide translations, clarify, and circle key structures during the discussion so that students are well prepared to state their perceptions using opinion statements.
  • The teacher provides information about the concept at hand. This can be through the creation of comprehensible readings or the scaffolding of authentic resources on the topic. Either way, the teacher helps present the topic to the students using comprehensible language.
  • The teacher leads a class discussion that critically analyzes the information. The teacher must formulate comprehensible questions to ask the students and then gather and discuss responses from students. The students can discuss the questions and share their responses using cooperative learning structures (such as fan n pick) either before or after the teacher-led discussion so that they can practice output, but it is important that the teacher guide the discussion at some point so as to provide comprehensible INput, which builds TL proficiency.
  • Students work individually, in pairs, or in small groups to identify related products, perspectives, and practices in their own culture (output), and then they share them with the class so that the teacher can guide the discussion (input).
  • Students formulate their own ideas about how the changed perception should affect how, when, and why they say what to whom in the target culture. They can share these ideas in a formal assessment (writing or speaking), informally with a partner or in small groups (consider using the Team Windows structure, then doing a gallery walk), or with the class in a  teacher-guided discussion.

What are some cultural practices, products, or perspectives that you’d like to give your students an opportunity to explore using the hypothesis refinement process? And what are some other strategies that you use to build global competency in your students?

He is here!!

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Warner Allen Bex made his grand debut on September 10, 2014 at 12:54pm. His name means “Defender of Innocence”, and he is named after my grandfather and my husband’s dad. We pray that his life would embody the pure and faultless religion of James 1:27: to look after orphans and widows and to keep himself from being polluted by the world. Our mighty “little” warrior weighs 9lb 10oz, is 21 inches and very healthy…and hungry! We are both doing great, and I am praising Jesus for a safe delivery and a healthy son.

As you can imagine…my hands will be full on the home front, so the blog will be taking the sideline for the next little bit here.